Seeds from the pod of a Theobroma tree. Native to the dense tropical Amazon forests. Commercially grown worldwide in tropical rainforests within 20° latitude of the equator. It is also known as the 'food of the gods'.
Cacao content refers to the amount of the chocolate product that is made of the three cacao components (chocolate liquor, cocoa butter and cocoa powder).
The ground up center (nib) of the cocoa bean (otherwise known as unsweetened chocolate) in a smooth, liquid state. It contains no alcohol.
The center (meat) of the cocoa bean. When ground, the nib becomes chocolate liquor.
Same as "chocolate liquor." The chocolate liquor is cooled and molded into blocks that can be used for baking.
The fat of the cocoa bean. It is not a dairy product.
The cocoa solids resulting from pressing cocoa butter out of chocolate liquor. May be natural or dutched.
Dark chocolate that contains a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor and less than 12% milk solids. Bittersweet and semi-sweet both fall under this definition; however, bittersweet is often the term used for chocolate with a minimum of 50% chocolate liquor.
See Sweet Chocolate below.
Sweet Chocolate (Dark):
Chocolate that contains a minimum of 15% chocolate liquor and less than 12% milk solids with varying amounts of sweeteners and cocoa butter.
Also known as bittersweet chocolate. Contains a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor and less than 12% milk solids.
Chocolate with at least 10% chocolate liquor, 12% milk solids and 3.39% milk fat, combined with sugar, cocoa butter, and vanilla.
Contains at least 20% cocoa butter, 14% milk solids, and 3.5% milk fat. It contains sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids and fats, and flavorings. White chocolate is white because it contains no cocoa powder or chocolate liquor/unsweetened chocolate.
A treatment used during the making of cocoa powder in which cocoa solids are treated with an alkaline solution to neutralize acidity. This process changes the color of the cocoa and develops a milder chocolate flavor.
The result of inadequate tempering or temperature abuse of a properly tempered chocolate. Visible as a dull white film on the surface of the chocolate with the possibility of a soft or crumbling texture on the interior. It is a visual and textural defect only. The product is fine to eat.
Known as confectionery coating. A blend of sugar, vegetable oil, cocoa powder, and other products. Vegetable oil is substituted for cocoa butter to reduce the product cost and to make the coating easier to work with.
Visible as a dull white film on the surface of the chocolate. Dry and hard to the touch, sugar bloom is the result of surface moisture dissolving sugar in the chocolate and subsequent recrystallization of the sugar on the chocolate surface. Typically caused by cold chocolate being exposed to a warm humid environment with resultant condensation forming on the product. It is a visual and textural defect only. The product is fine to eat.
A process of preparing chocolate that involves cooling and heating so that it will solidify with a stable cocoa butter crystal formation. This process is used to prepare chocolate for coating and dipping. Proper tempering, followed by good cooling, is required for good surface gloss and to prevent "fat" bloom.
credits to Ghirardelli Chocolate